It looks from the rumours emanating from the various counts that the SNP will fall short of the 58 seats forecast by the exit poll, but perhaps not by all that much. The overall battle for power throughout the UK remains on a knife-edge - the exit poll would only have to be overestimating the Tories by 15 or so seats (well within the margin of error) for the SNP to be in a pivotal position in a hung parliament. In that scenario, the Tories would still lead the government, but they would be losing votes in the Commons regularly, and it might be very tempting for them to offer the SNP substantial Home Rule in return for English Votes for English Laws - thus transforming the Tory administration into a majority government on English matters.
If, however, the exit poll is bang-on accurate, the SNP will have limited influence - BUT there will be a clear majority in the Commons for an in/out EU referendum. That obviously opens up the possibility of the one and only event that might lead to Scottish independence in the short-to-medium term - namely British withdrawal from the EU against the wishes of Scottish voters.